Readings: Teaching



  • Pearson, A. (1989). The teacher: Theory and practice in teacher education. New York and London: Routledge.  
  • Battro, A. (2010). The teaching brain. Mind, Brain, Education, 4, 1, 28-33.
  • Battro, A., Calero, C., Goldin, A.P., Holper, L., Pezzatti, L., Shalom, D.E., Sigman, M. (2013). The cognitive neuroscience of the teacher-student interaction. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7, 3, 177-181.
  • Holper, L., Goldin, A., Shalom, D., Battro, A., Wolf, M., & Sigman, M. (2013). The teaching and the learning brain: A cortical hemodynamic marker of teacher–student interactions in the Socratic dialog. International Journal of Educational Research, 59, 1–10.
  • Rodriguez V. (2012). The teaching brain and the end of the empty vessel. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6, 4, 177-185.
  • Rodriguez, V. (2013). The human nervous system: A framework for teaching and the teaching brain. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7, 2–12. 
  • Strauss, S. (2014). A call for a multidisciplinary approach to the study of teaching: Inspirations from Howard Gardner. In: M. Konhaber & E. Winner: Mind, Work, and LIfe. A festschrift in the occasion of Howard Gardner's 70th birthday.  Cambridge: The Offices of Howard Gardner.
  • Strauss, S., & Ziv, M. (2012). Teaching is a natural cognitive ability for humans. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6, 186–196.  
  • Watanabe, K. (2013). Teaching as a dynamic phenomenon with interpersonal interactions. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7, 91–100. 
Teaching as a natural cognitive ability
  • Strauss, S. (2005). Teaching as a natural cognitive ability: Implications for classroom practice and teacher education. In D. Pillemer and S. White (Eds.), Developmental psychology and social change (pp. 368-388). New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Strauss, S. & Ziv, M. (2012). Teaching is a natural cognitive ability for humans. Mind, Brain, and Education, 6, 4, 186-196.

Natural pedagogy
  • Csibra G, Gergely G. Natural pedagogy as evolutionary adaptation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 2011;366:1149-57.
  • Csibra G, Gergely G. Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 2009;13(4):148-53.
  • Csibra G, Gergely G. Social learning and social cognition: The case for pedagogy. In: Munakata YJohnson MH, editors. Processes of Change in Brain and Cognitive Development. Attention and Performance XXI. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2006. p. 249-74.
  • Gergely G, Csibra G. Sylvia's recipe: The role of imitation and pedagogy in the transmission of human culture. In: Enfield NJLevinson SC, editors. Roots of Human Sociality: Culture, Cognition, and Human Interaction. Oxford: Berg Publisher; 2006. p. 229-55.
  • Sage, K. & Baldwin, D.  (2012) Exploring natural pedagogy in play with preschoolersCues parents use and relations among them. Education Research and Perspectives, 39, 153-181.
The evolution of teaching
  • Barnett, S.A. (1973) Homo docens. J. Biosoc. Sci. 5, 393–403
  • Boesch,C. (1991) Teaching among wild chimpanzees. Anim.Behav. 41, 530–532.
  • Byrne & Rapaport (2011). What are we learning from teaching?  Animal Behaviour. 825p. 1207-1211. 
  • Caro, T.M. and Hauser, M.D. (1992) Is there teaching in nonhuman animals? Q. Rev. Biol. 67, 151–174
  • Csibra, G. (2007). Teachers in the wildTrends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 95-96.
  • Fogarty, L., Strimling, P. & Laland, K. N. (2011). The evolution of teaching. Evolution 65102760-2770.
  • Franks, N.R. and Richardson, T. (2006) Teaching in tandem-running ants. Nature 439, 153.
  • Hoppitt, W. et al. (2008). Lessons from animal teaching. Trends in ecology & evolution, 3, 29, 486-493.
  • Kline, M. (2014). How to learn about teaching: An evolutionary framework for the study of teaching behavior in humans and other animals - Preprint (to appear in BBS)
  • Premack, D. (1984) Pedagogy and aesthetics as sources of culture. In Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience (Gazzaniga, M.S., ed.), pp. 15–35, Plenum Press
  • Rapaport, L.G. and Ruiz-Miranda, C.R. (2002) Tutoring in wild golden lion tamarins. Int. J. Primatol. 23, 1063–1070
  • Rapaport, L.G. (2006) Parenting behavior: babbling bird teachers? Curr. Biol. 16, R675–R677.
  • Skerry et al. (2013). The origins of pedagogy : Developmental and evolutionary perspectives. Evolutionary psychology, 11, 3, 550-572
  • Thornton, A. & Raihani, N.J. 2008. The evolution of teaching. Animal Behaviour, 75, 1823-1836.
  • Thornton, A., Raihani, N.J. & Radford, A.N. 2007. Teachers in the wild: some clarification. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 272-273.
  • Thornton, A. & McAuliffe, K. 2006. Teaching in wild meerkats. Science, 313, 227-229.
  • Thornton, A. & McAuliffe, K. 2012. Teaching can teach us a lot. Animal Behaviour, 83, e6-e9.
  • Thornton, A. & Raihani, N. J. 2010. Identifying teaching in wild animals. Learning & Behavior, 38, 297-309.
Evolution of social learning
  • Herrmann, E., Call, J., Hernández-Lloreda, M.V., Hare, B., & Tomasello, M. (2007). Humans have evolved specialized skills of social cognition: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Science, 317, 1360-1366.
  • Heyes, C.M. and Galef, B.G., Jr, eds), (1996) Social Learning and Imitation: the Roots of Culture, Academic Press.
  • Tomasello, M. & Herrmann, E. (2010). Ape and human cognition: What’s the difference? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 19, 3-8.
  • Tomasello, M., Carpenter, M., Call, J., Behne, T., & Moll, H. (2005). Understanding and sharing intentions: The origins of cultural cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences28, 675 - 691.
  • Tomasello, M. (2007). For human eyes only. New York Times Op-Ed, January 13, 2007.
  • Tomasello, M., Kruger, A.C. Ratner, H.H. (1993) Cultural learning. Behavioral Brain Sciences,  16, 495–511.
  • Whiten, A. (2000). Primate culture and social learning. Cognitive science, 24, 3, 477-508
Social influence
  • Chudek, M., Heller, S., Birch, S., Henrich, J. (2012). Prestige-biased cultural learning:bystander's differential attention to potential models influences children's learning. Evolution and human behavior, 33, 46-56.
  • Galef, B. and Giraldeau,  L.A. (2001). Social influences on foraging in vertebrates: causal mechanisms and adaptive functions. Animal behavior, 61, 3-15.
  • Henrich, J. & Gil-White, F.J. (2001). The evolution of prestige. Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission. Evolution and human behavior, 22, 165-196.
Evolution of signaling
  • Dawkins, R. and Krebs, J.R. (1978). Animal signals: information or manipulation. Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. pp. 282–309.
  • Fernald, A. (1992). Human maternal vocalizations to infants as biologically relevant signals: An evolutionary perspective. In Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L., Tooby, J., The adapted mind, Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 
  • Krebs, J. R. and Dawkins, R. 1984. Animal signals: mind reading and manipulation. In: Behavioural Ecology (Ed. by J. R. Krebs & N. B. Davies), pp. 380–402. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer. 
  • Owren, M.J., Rendall, D., and Ryan, M. J. (2010) Redefining animal signalinginfluence versus information in communication. Biology and Philosophy, 25(5):755--780.
Trust and vigilance mechanisms
  •  Harris, P. & Corriveau, K. (2011). Young children’s selective trust in informants.  Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 366, 1179-1190.
  • Sperber, D., Clément, F., Heintz, C., Mascaro, O., Mercier, H., Origgi, G., Wilson, D. (2010). Epistemic vigilance. Mind & Language, 25, 359–393.
Social cognition
  • Hamilton, A. and Marsh, L. (2013). Two systems for action comprehension in autism: mirroring and mentalizing. In  Baron-Cohen, Tager-Flusberg & Lonbardo Undestanding other minds. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Spelke, E., Bernier, E., Skerry, A. (2013).Core Social Cognition. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the Social World. New York: Oxford University Press.


  • Bressoux, P. (1994). Les Recherches Sur Les Effets-écoles et Les Effets-maîtres. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 108,  91–137
  • Bressoux, P., and Bianco, M. (2004). “Long-Term Teacher Effects on Pupils’ Learning Gains.” Oxford Review of Education 30, 3, 327–345.
  • Chetty, R., Friedman, J., Hilger, N., Saez, E., Withmore Schanzenbach, D., Yagan, D. (2011). How does your kindergarten classroom affect your earnings? Evidence from project STARThe Quarterly Journal of Economics 126, 4, 1593–1660
  • Chetty, R., Friedman, J., Rockof, J. (2011). The long-term impacts of teachers: teacher value-added and student outcomes in adulthood.  NBER Working Paper Series. National Bureau of Economic Research
  • Cusset, P.Y. (2011). Que Disent Les Recherches Sur L’“effet Enseignant” ? Centre d’analyse stratégique, Note d’analyse 232
  • Krueger, A. (1999). Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions. The quarterly Journal of Economics, 114, 2, 497-532
  • Gordon, R., T.J. Kane, and D.O. (2006). Identifying Effective Teachers Using Performance on the Job. The Brooking Institution
  • Kane, T.J., and Staiger, D.O. (2008). Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement : An Experimental EvaluationNBER
  • KonstantopoulosS. (2007). How Long Do Teacher Effects Persist? Discussion Paper Series. IZA
  • Nye, B., L.V. Hedges, and  Konstantopoulos, S. (2004). How Large Are Teacher EffectsEducational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 26, 3, 237–257
  • Shanzenbach, D.  (2006). What Have Researchers Learned from Project STARBrookings Papers on Education Policy, 205-228.
Effects of teachers' training/professional development
  • Angrist, J. D., Lavy, V. (2001). Does Teacher Training Affect Pupil Learning? Evidence from Matched Comparisons in Jerusalem Public Schools.  Journal of Labor Economics, 19(2), 343-36.9
  • Bressoux, P., Kramarz, F.  & Prost, C. (2008). Teachers’ Training, Class Size and Students’ Outcomes: Learning from Administrative Forecasting Mistakes. IZA, 2008.
  • Harris D. N., Sass T. R (2011). Teacher Training, Teacher Quality and Student Achievement. Journal of public economics, 95, 7-8, 798-812.
  • Jacob B. A, Lefgren L. (2004) : The Impact of Teacher Training on Student Achievement : Quasi Experimental Evidence from School Reform efforts in Chicago. Journal of Human Resources. 39, 1, 50-79.
  • Rivkin, S., Hanushek, E. & Kain, J. (2005). Teachers, Schools and Academic Achievement. Econometrica, 73, 2, 417-458.
  • Yoon, K.S., Duncan, T.,  Wen-Yu Lee, S., Scarlos, B., and Shapley, K. (2007). Reviewing the Evidence On How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. Issues & Answers Report. U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Science, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Laboratory Southwest.
Evaluating teachers
  • MET  
  • Quality Science Teaching, Stanford Unviersity
  • UTeach Teacher Observation Protocol (UTOP), University of Texas-Austin

The 2-sigma problem and the tutoring effect
  • Bloom, B. (1984). The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring. Educational researcher, 13, 6, 4-16.
Social effects
  • Algan, Y., Cahuc, P., Shleifer, A. (2013). Teaching Practices and Social Capital. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 5, 3,  189-210.
Cooperative learning
  • Bennett et al. (2005). A systematic review of the nature of small-group discussions aimed at improving students' understanding of evidence in science. Department of educational studies Research paper 2005/03
  • Cook, S. W., Mitchell, Z., & Goldin-Meadow, S. Gesture makes learning last, Cognition, 2008, 106, 1047 - 1058. 
  • Cook, S. W., Duffy, R.G. & Fenn, K. M. (in press). Consolidation and transfer of learning after observing hand gesture. Child Development.
  • Goldin-Meadow, S. Learning through gesture, WIREs (Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews): Cognitive Science, published online, March 2011. DOI:10. 1002/wcs. 132.
  • Palincsar, A.S. & Brown, A.L (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehension-fostering and comprehension-monitoring activities. Cognition and interaction, 1, 2, 117-175.
  • Slavin, R.E. (1996). Research on cooperative learning and achievement: What we know, What we need to know. Contemporary educational psychology, 21, 43-69.
  • Slavin, R.E. (2010).  What makes group work work. In OECD The nature of learning. Paris: OECD.
  • Slavin, R.E. (1988). Cooperative learning and students' achievement. Educational leadership, 31-33.
  • Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., and Donovan, S. S. (1999), “Effects of Small-Group Learning on Undergraduates in Science, Mathematics, Engineering, and Technology: A Meta-Analysis,” Review of Educational Research, 69, 1, 21-51. 
  • Hole in the wall

Teaching for learning
  • Bargh, J. and; Schul, Y. (1989). On the cognitive benefits of teaching. Journal of educational psychology, 72, 5, 593-604.

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